Saturday, 13 December 2014

To Amend or Not the Security Laws – 2014 Bill

Having gone through the proposed amendments to our security laws the below is my specific assessment and contribution.
In general these are good amendments proposed for the laws and are definitely the right step towards fighting terrorism and other organized crimes. Obviously the law alone is insufficient to deal with the phenomenon of extremist violent radicalization, in itself a departure from commonly held norms. Further still laws alone cannot protect a nation from impunity or abuse of office and power through the security machinery. Conscientious leadership, democratic values and respect for the purpose and role of security agencies by our leadership will always guarantee it. How that can be achieved for posterity is outside the purview of this document yet it should be pursued by all with similarity of urgency and intensity as these security laws have been worked on. 
In passing these amendments all adherences to the constitution and laws of the land, itself a significant requirement in an effective anti terrorism strategy must be followed. As we legislate, let us not forget Kenyan history and the reasons why we made the laws we now wish to amend. In order to protect those concerns it may be better in some aspects to find strategic, technical or operational means within the security mechanism to move on. As a measure of this same spirit we could evaluate if some currently desired changes if not made actually have the potential to deny us the victory in the war on terror or if protecting/ preserving, previously hard fought for rights may be more advantageous for posterity.
That having been said, I should mention here that it is very apparent to me that a security agency with completely bound hands is and shall remain an impotent one. To that end I am glad that in my assessment of the proposed security law only 07/109 clauses – 7.6% would need to be deleted from the list.
Suggestions for Amendment to the Bill

Amendment Section 32 - Evidence Act Cap 80
Section 20A (2) & (5) - Require a 2 day notification of objection to prosecutor prior to being tendered in evidence. A period sufficient to scrutinize the same documents not less than 3days should be required for production of the documents to concerned parties so they have ample time to go through and launch any objection they may have.
Amendment Section 39 - Prisons Act Cap 70
Insertion of new section 70A - include in details to be recorded by the Commissioner after (g) & before (f); “the record of prisons, specific cell numbers and commensurate dates where the suspect has been held”. Which is critical data declaring specific location and period for those held will be needed in an investigation and should not be left to chance.
Amendment Section 17A - KAA Act Cap 395
Establishment of Inter- Agency Security Advisory Committee – potential for conflict with the National Civil Aviation Security Committee indeed the Kenya Civil Aviation Authority Act Section 3B – Functions of the Authority Section 1: (f) the coordination and direction of search and rescue services; (g) the provision of services and facilities in relation to the investigation of aircraft accidents and incidents; (i) dealing with incidents of unlawful interference with aviation security. Section 3 No.(6) In the discharge of its responsibility for aviation safety and security the Authority shall coordinate its activities with other agencies of the Government, including the Kenya Ports Authority, the Department of Defence and the Police. The Civil Aviation Regulations 2013 Part 3 section 10 on National Civil Aviation Security Committee (a) & (b) see especially B 3) Without limiting the generality of sub regulation (2) the Minister shall, in appointing members of the National Civil Aviation Security Committee, ensure that it comprises one member from each of the following departments, agencies or organizations— (a) the Authority; (b) the Chairperson of the National Air Transport Facilitation Committee; (c) the airport authority; (d) the ministry responsible for security or internal affairs; (e) intelligence organizations;
Amendment Section 59 - NIS Act CAP 28
Section 2 (b) in the definition of preventive intelligence include after important personalities or any other matters of national interest
Amendment Section 62 - NIS Act Cap 28
6A. (1) An officer of the Service may stop and detain any person whom the officer— Allow powers to arrest but require the NIS to detain in an authorized police station & notify the OCS/ OCPD of the same and to produce the suspect before court in accordance to the laid down Criminal Procedure Code laws. Furthermore these powers can be limited to specific cases including organized transnational crime like terrorism & drug trafficking only. This amendment seems to have been proposed to deal with breeches of intelligence operations emanating from possible National Police Service Officers who may have leaked information to suspects. If so, measures to promptly prosecute them, internal investigations and counter espionage operations should deal with such occurrences in near term while organization wide culture change/ reform program can be pursued in a 3-5 year plan. Rather than pass the amendment as proposed, one reason to pursue these technical and operational steps is that those who have previously colluded with the police in the past, probably on a corrupt basis, will only change their client to the NIS after the law is changed so that in effect the demand follows the supply and the status remains the same.
NIS act has proposed greater empowerment of the service without providing for commensurate increase in oversight, being that all the work they do is on behalf of the citizens. A prosecution process for intelligence officers who commit crimes should be placed in the mainstream court system. Although the process must then take cognizance of the need for appropriate facilitation when it comes to hearings involving national security matters where disclosure of material would be damaging to the public interest. Central to this is introduction of legislation to make the mechanism known as closed material procedures part of that processes such a system will advance greater public trust and a more ethically run institution. To the end that Kenyans will bear higher confidence in the workings of the agency;

Amendment Section 73 - Prevention of Terrorism Act Failure to prevent entry of weapons -  12C (1) Any person, who, being in charge of any place of worship institution or public place within which illegal weapons are recovered, shall be deemed to be in possession of such weapons and shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty years. (2) It shall be a defense if the person referred to in subsection (1) shows that he had no control over the entry of the weapons in the place of worship institution or public place or he took appropriate step to prevent into the place of worship, institution or public place. – insert a close to allow the Cabinet Secretary authority to list what the appropriate steps are to leave no room for contention or wider interpretation. Example appropriate measures could include ensuring suitable (specified) training and general awareness programs/ announcements for staff and for all users of the facility, appointment of certain officials to ensure security of the premises, regular search of premises, locking of rooms, facilities that could be used to conceal weapons etc
Amendment Section 75 - Prevention of Terrorism Act Cap No. 30 of 2012
Prohibition from broadcasting 30F (2) A person who publishes or broadcasts photographs of victims of a terrorist attack without the consent of the National Police Service and of the victim commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a term of imprisonment for a period not exceed three years or to a fine of five million shillings, or both – Insert; after photographs, “ that visually identify an individual”,  so as to achieve the desired effect in controlling traumatic exposure of personal identities through regular media reporting but at the same time avoid what appears to amount to gagging the media.
Amendment Section Part - VI: Mechanism for coordinating counter-terrorism measures: in addition to establishment of NCTC it is critical to consider establishment of County Data Fusion Centers to be used as intelligence focal points manned by all agencies in the fight against crime including terror which often feeds off other illegal activities such poaching, drugs & small arms trafficking etc  these centers working at county level would be used to better facilitate intelligence led policing which in turn will feed into NCTC, NIS & NPS overall mandates.
Establishment in law of a congruent border security unit involving immigration, customs and excise, NIS, administration police or other relevant security agencies should be a significant inclusion in so much as that terror resources are being imported into the country while supplies and fresh recruits go through the very same borders only to return later to attack among other places the border towns as recent incidents in Mandera & Garissa have shown.
Establishment of a Homeland Security Authority/ ministry that works on a day to day basis to plan, develop, manage, regulate and direct an efficient comprehensive national strategy for all security and non security activities geared towards finishing terrorism and other transnational organized crimes should be a priority and should have informed these amendments even if a separate act of law will be required to establish it. That establishment of such an authority should have come first and the amendments after that to avoid double work and confusion in the running of internal security matters.

Contentious Amendments:
Public Order Act Cap 56
Amendment Section 4 - New Section in Public Order Act Cap 56 - 5A The Cabinet Secretary may by notice in the Gazette designate the areas where, and times at which public meetings, gatherings or public processions may be held. Curtails/ challenges freedoms declared in the Constitution of Kenya Chapter Four––The Bill of Rights No. 37; Every person has the right, peaceably and unarmed, to assemble, to demonstrate, to picket, and to present petitions to public authorities.

Amendment Section 5 - Section 6 of the Public Order Act is amended— (a) by inserting the following subsections immediately after subsection (1)— (1A) Any person who unlawfully convenes, organizes or promotes a public rally, meeting or procession or neglects or refuses to comply with any law relating to public meetings commits an offence. – Supporting curtailing above mentioned freedoms

Penal Code Cap 63
Amendment Section 15 - Inserted Section 66A, A person who publishes or causes to be published or distributed obscene, gory or offensive material which is likely to cause fear and alarm to the general public or disturb public peace is guilty of a felony and is liable, upon conviction, to a fine not exceeding one million shillings or imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years or both, or, where the offence is committed by a media enterprise, to a fine not exceeding five million shillings. – risks curtailing freedom of press/ has no measure to determine content thus open to abuse

NPS Act Cap of 2011
Amendment Section 97/98/99/100 - (Section 12) of the National Police Service Act is amended by— (a) Deleting subsection (2) and substituting therefore the following subsection— (2) The President shall, within fourteen days after a vacancy occurs in the office of the Inspector-General, nominate a person for appointment as an Inspector-General and submit the name of the nominee to the National Assembly. (b) Deleting subsections (3), (4), (5), and (6). (Section 15) of the National Police Service Act is amended by deleting subsections (2), (4), (5), (6), (7) and (8).  (Section 17) of the National Police Act is amended by deleting subsections (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6) – (Section 29) of the National Police Service
Act is amended by deleting subsections (2) and (3).These changes do not affect the war against terror if anything it leaves the office prone to abuses similar to those witnessed historically in the misuse of police by the political class. It is a clear move to de-professionalize the service.

Example of Numerous ‘Acceptable’ Sections
The Majority of 109 clauses in the amendment act are good these parts selected here are just examples;

Cap 56
- The increase in penalties e.g. from 1k to 10k or 100k from 3months to 2years
- Corrections of titles Commissioner to IGP Minister to CS Province to County etc
Cap 63
-                                -   Insertion of new section 128A - Offences by public officers
-                                -   Insertion of new section 251A - Insulting modesty by intruding privacy or stripping
Cap 75
-                  -  Insertion of section 36A - Remand by court – giving lee way for terror investigations yet maintaining judicial supervision of the curtailment of individual freedom

Other articles of interest:
Ø  My Top 10 Things in the 1st Month for the New Security Chiefs:
Ø  What specific role do you have, when it comes to national security?
Ø  Addressing Current Public Dissatisfaction in Policing:
Ø  Suggestions in Realignment in Administration Police Functions

Date: 14/12/2014         

Sincerely Yours

Bernard M. Makau
Managing Partner
Winnerman Consult & Training Ltd.
                                                                                      cell: 0722645053,

twt: @muokiben7, FB: ben muoki LkdIn: ben muoki  

Thursday, 11 December 2014

Suggestions in Realignment of Administration Police Functions

In recent months debate has been rife on how to improve security one thought line, being that we should separate the Administration Police (AP) from the Kenya Police (KP). In my previous article;
“To Separate or Not To Separate AP & KP”; found at:

I said that the AP & other operational police units should be under a single Deputy IG responsible for National Police Operations. That could happen in a set up where there are six other Deputy IG’s each responsible for a department functionally aligned for maximum service delivery and an IG of the entire National Police Service to make up a Police Service Executive Council that will then be responsible for Kenya’s internal security. Already the functions for AP and KP are spelt out in the National Police Service Act. Some of the AP’s more specific functions given in law include:
1)    Provision of border patrol and border security – with proper resourcing including some military grade equipment, advanced border monitoring technology and manpower reconstitution to include immigration, customs and some intelligence personnel. There will be need to post more officers to those border regions in this new Border Security Section (BSS - AP) of the AP unit;
2)    Provision of specialized stock theft prevention services – this role can either be left to the Anti Stock Theft Unit (ASTU) or undertaken within county jurisdictions
(see No. 4 below);
3)    Protection of Government property, vital installations and strategic points as may be directed by the Inspector-General – AP involvement could be minimized to the very critical assignments while most others can be left to properly regulated private contractors.
4)    Rendering of support to Government agencies in the enforcement of administrative functions and the exercise of lawful duties and co-coordinating with complementing Government agencies in conflict management and peace building – these two functions should be carried out at County Government level. So that instead of giving the AP back to public administration offices they are seconded to the County Governors office through a revised county policing authority clause in the NPS act. One of the accusations leveled at central government is that it has left out county authorities in management of security. Therefore this suggestion may give them more play in the role while still maintaining sufficient control to ensure the opportunity is not abused. Some advantages for this set up may include realignment of majority officer postings to home districts with an aim of eventually having at least 70% of all APs in the County Security Services Section (CSSS – AP) deployed to work from their homes. The remnant 30% can be deployed to away from home areas thus reducing housing costs and ensuring ethnic balance. After the initial AP recruitment and training, officers in this section should be sent to regional training facilities where issues specific to the region and or county needs, can be trained on training centers can cover rustling prone regions, coastal and or rural regions etc. The important role of community policing could then be added as an important function of the CSSS who operating from home will be best placed.

The different sections within the AP unit will be highly specialized so as to provide optimal service delivery. These different lines of deployment for the Kenya Police as opposed to the Administration Police would be somewhat, although not entirely similar to those in the US where they have Federal, State and even County officers all undertaking policing. After examination of that system, it appears there is no, “one-size-fits-all” for their national security either. In order to properly and most effectively deal with widely varying security scenarios across our own country we may need to create laws and or operational strategies that address our people’s specific needs and situations where they are, as best as possible. To this end the internal ministry which is responsible for police should invite proposals from counties, as to what duties and functions they may want AP deployment in their areas. This article is not written as a complete study on the topic but as mere talking points to sponsor further thought. Issues like the parallel security command lines in the police command and the County Commissioner or even governor, jurisdiction issues, budget and funding lines among others must be tackled as we consider this topic. 

Similar articles of interest:
Ø  My Top 10 Things in the 1st Month for the New Security Chiefs:
Ø  What specific role do you have, when it comes to national security?

Ø  Addressing Current Public Dissatisfaction in Policing:

Tuesday, 9 December 2014

What specific role do you have, when it comes to national security?

“Security Begins with you, security begins with me”. Our president has been in the forefront of advocacy for individual citizen involvement in our national security. The following is what I believe it would entail;

Don’t Be Divided: The initial task should be refusing to be cheated and divided into religious/ ethnic/ sectarian groupings to harbor bitterness toward each other or to fight. Note that one of al shabaab’s goals is to takeover our region with their extremist Sharia dogma. The numerous attacks on churches since 2011 were calculated to cause hatred and division between Christian and Muslim citizens. In the recent Lamu attacks [2014] the strategy had changed to, one meant for the division of Kenyan’s into ethnic affiliations based on indigenous and migrant coastal populations. Now in Mandera they are attempting to alienate a portion of our territory with targeted attacks on non local people who now, have escaped and in the process abandoned critical functions like medical services and schools. I might say here that for individuals to play their role properly the government needs to put in such measure as to protect citizens as those suggested in my previous article; My Top 10 Things in the 1st Month for the New Security Chiefs.
If there is a time to be patriotic and to actively support police efforts in securing the country it is now. I hope the police will quickly reform, enough to be capable of receiving and processing critical information to forestall further incidents. In our places of worship we must deny access, refuge or storage of anything or one associated with extreme violent plans/ groups or utterances. Don’t just refuse them, report them also. They are not your friend or worthy relation, once they are through with the rest they will turn on you just see what they did to non extremist people in Somalia before KDF went in there to liberate them.
Don’t Be Cowed: Understand that the global war on terror has come home and “terrorism is a form of manipulation of individual and collective psyche that use fear as a stimulant”. The aim, in our case is to cause us to demand of our leadership, the immediate withdrawal of KDF from Somalia & AMISOM. Why? so that they can regain control of Somalia. Be sure if that were to happen our neighbor will become the world HQ of terror and al shabaab’s goal to take over the region will only have been strengthened, to crush our constitution and chosen way of life as they had completed in Somalia before. Therefore stand strong know we shall win, we are in a war there may be casualties but we shall surely win. Kenya is cut from the blood of freedom fighters, our gallant soldiers are paying the price as you read this, now it is our turn us individual citizens to support them and do so too.
Reject Substandard Security: an example is the process that goes on at entrances to most public places; malls, office blocks etc it is no secret that, is not a proper security check yet we all go about our business unconcerned. None I have heard going to the management to complain, none protesting to the security companies fleecing clients in the guise of offering a security service, none avoiding premises that are not well secured! Further to that is it not interesting that the attacks either in churches, restaurants even the Westgate mall incident, have all been forced entries, yet most of these places have a counter measure that is meant to detect concealment and stealth at the point of entry? All of us must become more proactive to ensure security providers government or private are providing the service to the standard required of them. A word of caution; this is not to say we become arrogant or get a, “You must know people!”, attitude find the best, quickest and most effective way to communicate your concerns preferably to the supervisory/ managerial level instead and get corrective action put in place.  
See Something, Say Something: Report any suspicious behavior including suspect tribal formations, acquisition, concealment or transport of any weapons including machetes (pangas), clubs (rungus), guns, suspect hazardous or explosive material and suspect people with unclear activity in forests or private ranches e.g. unexplained groups or movement of supplies e.g. uniforms, large unexplained purchase of foodstuffs or medical supplies, different vehicles that could be used for transporting an army or that may have an IED hidden on board. Although there could be a completely innocent explanation for this sort of suspicious information/ activity it is better that further investigation by the police and not private individuals takes place because of the risk associated with for example your inability to properly counter the likelihood of extreme violence. It is true there exists a chance your suspicions are wrong still the slight embarrassment one could suffer when the police confirm [to you in private] later that your suspicions are untrue is nothing compared to the losses of an actual attack. I must mention here the government must play a more active role in this campaign to create confidence in the public in order to gain their full participation.
Pay for Good Security: Good security is expensive and also inconvenient. Cost of modern equipment, appropriate training and security operations not to mention the levels of manpower required to properly cover any area is very high. Imagine blocking off the entire estimated 800KM border between Kenya and Somalia so that no single terrorist can cross over. The inconvenience we may have to endure while becoming securer can become substantial e.g. the searches being carried out now at police road blocks on different highways, done properly it would be random motorists being stopped required to disembark produce valid ID and the car’s every compartment and hiding place properly searched. During heightened security alerts we have witnessed something like it at JKIA entrances when the traffic jam spreads out into Mombasa road. Even with modern smart technology security will be obtrusive how else would the police know who or what is being ferried to or from a scene of crime. So let’s pay for good security lest you get substandard, underequipped, poorly trained service providers who in themselves are the vulnerability that the attackers exploit. Let’s also master patience when going through security checks at impromptu or at expected check points, the more we are willing to queue, wait and cooperate while going through proper security before entering a premises say a supermarket the more secure we will be.
Device a Family Plan: Each house hold should have a customized security plan. The elements involved may vary widely for one home to another based on locale, member’s routines, ages even distances separating each during the stretch of any 24hrs. I suggest to begin by 1st listing all likely scenarios taking into account day or night time activities of each family member e.g. places of work and duty times, collage attendance, home-stay, sick persons/ hospitalized etc. One constant can be making it a habit in your home to inform each other of your exact location and movement during the course of your absence from the house this way if any report comes through of problems at one point that information can be relayed to those in danger in good time to escape. Plan where to go, how to meet in case you are in separate locations and phones are dead, who to call, include someone who is away from the immediate affected area in the event of an incident. This is helpful incase each of you cannot reach one another. Ensure each family member has memorized the critical phone numbers including police and emergency numbers. Discuss among yourselves what to look out for and about security at places of worship, work, school etc. topics like what was suspicious, which places to avoid, happenings out of the normal occurrences, what actions needed to address them etc You may even organize as the larger family, groups of families, neighbors to get outside help train in first aid, situational awareness, and detecting surveillance, surviving active shooter scenarios among others.
Form Neighborhood Watch Groups: from the family it will be easier to work out your local chapter of Nyumba 10. Already many neighbors have estate, village associations and similar groups. These are perfect as many already have security as an agenda. Households will have greater leverage with local public administration and police especially when requiring some support in sensitization programs or heightened patrols etc in addition to terrorism other crimes like illicit brew/ sale of alcoholic drinks, FGM, cattle rustling, and narcotics growing, handling, trade or use, child abuse, human trafficking, criminal hide outs or warehouses etc can be promptly reported for police intervention. It would have been best to have an active Police Reserve in addition to the Nyumba 10 program. We should lobby GoK, to have this sort of arrangement properly instituted to give a chance to those who would make the extra sacrifice and join just such a unit and volunteer their time and ability in the protection of society.
Master Emergency Measures: Most public buildings these days have emergency measures including fire assembly points and equipment. Those who have read my article; My Top 10 Things in the 1st Month for the New Security Chiefs.
now know that emergency preparedness and response can contribute toward reduction of the impact in an attack by more than 50%. In turn that reduces the suitability of a target to a planner who is looking to create maximum impact. If all Kenyans actively take interest even request their building managers to organize appropriate response programs it will sum up in a disciplined security responsive society less likely to suffer extreme impact in an attack. As you enter any premises take time to note fire escapes etc that could be used if circumstance calls for it. When time is available or at regular places you visit, try thinking like a terrorist/ criminal, what would they do? How would they attack? Putting yourself in their shoes even just mentally will open you up to ideas of what could happen and thus you are better armed to device what your response would be if just a thing like that happened. Past events found on the web can help you visualize those possibilities better after all, history repeats itself. For example did you know the first time terrorist attempted hijacking multiple aircrafts (4) simultaneously was in 1970 by PFLP and not in 2001 in the US by al Qaeda? Well taking time to go through different historical scenarios will give you a good focus on future events. Coupled with situational awareness [last point below] you will have increased your survival/ escape chances considerably. In addition you could also organize/ attend emergency response training with agencies like ICRC, fire fighting etc. In the event an incident actually occurs make your different resources available to help and also to reduce the impact as quickly and as much as possible. You could decided you will do specific things before hand once you determine what exactly it is you can do in such a scenario I hope the National Emergency Response Center [NERC] has or can have a data bank of all these voluntary assistance offers that I hope will come forth so they can better focus the activities as precisely as possible. That center can learn from previous public out pouring of voluntary assist to victims and or emergency responders. NERC must encourage now wide spread growth of this culture in order to secure the largest/ best public response in time of need.
Develop Your Situational Awareness: one of the points that stood out for me in the 9/11 report after aircraft hit the twin towers & pentagon, is that the security agencies never thought that such an incident could happen to the US.  At that individual level where ever you are, situational awareness is called for; being aware of what is happening around you during the course of your day is a critical skill required of the best security operatives round the world. For the average person on the street it is equally important the advantage being it is a skill that anyone can train themselves to wield expertly. Perhaps the most important factor affecting a person's reaction to a life-threatening incident is their mindset going into that situation. Often when we train air crew on how to deal with an aircraft highjack scenario I tell them to live through the situation in their minds, to feel the emotions and see themselves overcoming any initial fears so as to do the things we recommend that they do in order to survive and help others survive. The way we human beings are wired makes it very difficult for a person to go from a mental state of utter unawareness if you like perceive ignorance to the likelihood of such situations occurring to a state of heightened alertness. Picture the mind working like a manually operated car if the driver tries to shift from gear one to gear six straight without going through the other gears the car will stall. Preparedness therefore calls for mental preconditioning on your part to avoid going into a stall/panic. Many times you see or hear stories of victims going into situational paralysis, which makes you freeze, unable to respond to a dangerous situation thus limiting your chances of survival only to the existence of luck. The victim must have tried to shift gears up, mentally too fast. Other than being aware of your situation you must also learn to trust in your gut feeling when it says something isn't quite right. In the police force of the time we called it, ‘akili ya sita’, English translation, ‘the sixth sense’. By overriding this ‘akili’ through rationalizing away your sense of danger is deadly. As a first step in mastery of these skills, accept that our society is living through security trying times. Secondly each day everywhere you may be, look out for small tell, tell signs of evolving dangerous situations, much as one does when cruising along on the road relaxed but alert for the goat that not knowing any better suddenly jumps onto the road chasing after better grazing on the other side. The driver alert can pick up the signs early and slows to allow him pass. In the same fashion not being paranoid but yet sufficiently aware of your environment you are able to see danger approaching and step on the brakes or divert the course of your movement. The greatest hindrance here is the self, who vows security is the work of police or KDF, who says they have no role in it. They are the kind of people who mostly get caught up moving from ignorant, obstinate citizen to victim or casualty and possibly statistic very quickly.

Friday, 5 December 2014

My Top 10 Things in the 1st Month for the New Security Chiefs

  1. Request Parliament to Authorize Use of Military Internally Anywhere in Kenya In Advance for the Next One Year: Based on you inheritance of a police force in a state of current disability. Any intelligence of likely attacks will help your request so as to avoid confusion in the event of any critical attacks. This request should be made as focus on improving NPS’s capabilities takes course. In the 2nd month a ‘Reforms and Upgrading of NPS Report’ should also be submitted to parliament committing the executive to SMART milestones in the change & improvement process. – Immediate.
  2. Touch the Untouchable & Round up Quietly, as Many Possible Suspects as You Can:  Do it throughout the country for all suspects to a felony not just terrorism, freeze suspect terror & organized crime accounts in short, take the war to the enemy! If need be declare a RED THREAT STATUS. If there are some who politics or other pressures protected before, use your current public good will before it expires to deal with these kind of ‘untouchables’ not just terrorists and their supporters but also errant/ corrupt police, immigration, customs and excise officers among others. Hunt them down, prosecute them all and follow up to recover benefits they accrued unfairly and have it covered through mass media to make your firm position known. Do so to the point others will be properly warned against malpractices like corruption. In addition engage an inspection & test unit moving around the country to check effectiveness of the rest of your security system. For those found still wallowing in negligence ensure internal disciplinary processes work on overtime. Shock therapy is the way to get unstuck this NPS from its state of current rot. – Immediate.
  3. Set up a Professional Public Communications & Joint Psycho Ops Office: Terrorism must be fought on both fronts that the enemy is positioned in. That is on the physical and the psychological front. Most attacks al shabaab engages in are calculated to cause fear even panic in the target group. Case in hand, Mandera where now they are 100% successful in causing a migration of non locals thus further alienating locals with the hope of assimilating area and local’s later. What’s likely to happen upon your appointments is heightened attacks round the country to try dishearten Kenyans. The terrorists hope to do this to the point if possible where citizens, in fear forcedly demand a withdrawal of KDF from Somalia and thus unwittingly eventually bring victory to al shabaab.                                                       Consequently as much as the CS, IG even President will make public pronouncements on current security situations it will be best if mostly, professional spokes persons as part of this proposed office are used going forward. – Target in 15 days 
  4. Increase Information Collection & Processing Capacity: Implement County Intelligence Fusion Centers where all security agencies are represented operationally covering all crimes. From these centers twice daily reports to NIS & NPS HQs. At every police station country wide require increased security information collection and on time relay. Institute a ‘SEE SOMETHING, SAY SOMETHING’ public campaign similar to the US system, but localized for use in Kenya , one way is to co-opt county leadership etc in the drive. Complimentary to this system must be prompt dissemination through advise/ directing or updating the public & owners of private premises [e.g. malls] on likely threats and necessary precautions in their particular areas – Target in 15 days
  5. Border Protection: Have KDF take over border security along the volatile stretches right from the coast & ocean stretches thro the eastern borderline with Somalia all the way to the northern part bordering Ethiopia. Maintain watch over coastal waters for sneak or sudden speed boat attacks. Included in this agreed role with KDF is: setting up of a multi unit rapid response team with quick airlift capability to move in ward or outward of the country from bases in places like Garissa etc. They should also take charge of entry/ exit movement from the country along that border. The military could create a 10-15KM clear security buffer zone along that entire stretch of borderline where no activities or movement will be permitted. Most importantly KDF must challenge and destroy terrorists and hide outs on Somalia side within 100km of Kenya AMISOM mission or not. – Target in 10 days 
  6. Big Town’s, Main Roads and Country Side Operations: From No. 1 above determine early which areas the military will take charge of and which ones will be left to the police example say all Northern Kenya due to remoteness and frequent violent fighting will largely have KDF on duty & on standby to deploy while cities and big towns will be managed by the police. Use ‘Continuous Random Thorough Search’ at road blocks on highways and main roads. Increase overt surveillance of all vital installations including hospitals, hotels, malls main bus stops offices, churches etc, declare curfews in Mandera & Garissa and increase overt military presence at all hospitals, schools, business premises etc surround the towns to ensure movement in and out is firmly controlled similar measures could be done for other known target areas. Also ban night road travel, where possible institute armed escort for convoys of all public transport. Ensure rapid response units & plans per sub county nationally are ready to move at any time – Target in 10 days
  7. Command a Review of Our Emergency Preparedness: Do hospitals have enough emergency medicines & kits? What of blood banks etc, undertake table top, full and semi drills nationwide, review emergency procedures, request supplies as may be required. 50% of the impact of an attack can be reduced by quick competent response and return to normalcy. Confirm all round preparedness for different scenarios. Demand KDF produce and commit to a ‘Severe Retaliation Plan’ in readiness to hit back hard on al shabaab’s weak points too in readiness to immediately strike back in the event of an attack on our national interests. By establishing this way of retaliation as a norm it will reduce the probability of any terror planner instigating any attack by raising the cost on lives and collateral damage to the terror gang – Target 15 days.
  8. Assess and Make Your Fair Report of Internal & National Security Status to Parliament: Some issues to include will be recommendations for review of the legal and structural frame work in security services. This report can be a precursor to the report alluded to in No. 1 above. That way speculation and downright miss information will be substituted for a united front against the enemy. The consequent parliamentary debate on your report and the agreed way forward also reduces pressure on both CS & IG so long as you keep to strategy and targets you agreed with parliament. Finally it paves the way for additional funding requests that you may make. – Target in 20 days.
  9. Request Even Bigger Funding: For any needed equipment and capacity building yes, but also to pay for information if we don’t know where ‘they are let’s buy them out of their hiding places’. Demand results from those who spend that cash. If funding for some development projects has to be diverted for a year or two to beef up security so let it be. Parliament can explain to the public but am sure public understanding and support is available now – Target in 20 days.
  10. Commence Expansion of Anti/ Counter Terrorism Capacity: Build officer capacity in short courses 15 days – 1month e.g. 1st responder to Terrorism, Recognition & Neutralization of Suicide Bombers/ VBIEDs, Close Quarter Street Battling and Intelligence for Field Operatives/ Police Officers, among other courses. As they are trained so let them be deployed guided by intelligence assessments as to the places where most threat exists initially. Where increased deployment is not readily available the current officer compliment in those areas could benefit first to go for such training before moving to less prone areas. As for private sector security, engage the service providers to find ways in which they can upgrade their levels of securing in support of NPS efforts deliver joint recommendations to parliament – Target in 25 days

To Separate or Not To Separate Administration Police & Kenya Police

Good arguments have been made on both sides; keeping the Administration Police & Kenya Police together provides uniformity of purpose as our constitution’s authors envisioned. On the other hand internal rivalries from differences in functionality, training and equipping levels etc have prevented seamless policing; other countries have multiple policing agencies [although context in which they exist must be examined]. Hate to say this, but I cautioned on this 2 years ago in a blog article titled, Rethinking Internal Security in Kenya. Here is an excerpt;
“the more paramilitary, Administration Police Force [cap 85 LoK - repealed] is scheduled for complete merger with the Kenya Police Force [cap 84 LoK - repealed for The National Police Service act 2012]. This merger envisioned by the constitution writers now has to be actualized without lowering the standards of services provided, this will require more than command or law. In the corporate world where companies have merged, studies show that these kinds of arrangements look good on paper but end up disastrously in practice. Close to 70% of them fail. Because both organizations run under strict command and control regimes little may be said from within but as any other merger the challenges could include insufficient trust building at all levels. It should not be assumed that because they are all law enforcement organs that therefore individual actors within each of them will have the confidence or working trust required for optimal execution of duty. Clash of unit cultures from differences in the management style and power struggles between officers and ranks is also a real danger, the awarding of promotions and postings and also the differences in types of duty deployment will all need careful consideration and deliberate work to address each challenge. In addition to reassuring the general public the Inspector General will critically needs to reassure with frequent communication and action, his human resource at every rank that both professional and personal interests are all adequately covered in these new changes.” www.
May be some decision makers never got to read it then, no use of crying over spoilt milk now but so what should happen then? Well I would prefer to see a complete overhaul of the NPS structure from constitutional level down. In doing so I hope a functionally aligned & operationally consolidated police service instead of a traditionally structured system will be. Those who argue the old structure where AP was under the Public Administration must first ask, is there a legal basis to have that system? 2nd but equally important, are the security challenges similar now as those of that era? Finally would a multiple agency approach in Kenya address our challenges? An emphatic No, for all the questions must be the answer. In separating AP & National Police we risk creating confusion & loopholes through dual policing structures on the other hand realigning them functionally would help to consolidate operations under one IG, AP could join other units like GSU, CID, KAPU, Anti Stock Theft Unit or Anti Terrorism Police Unit etc. After all no argument can possibly justify why AP should maintain a more preferred status, than those other units to the point where they operate under a separate Deputy IG. The remedy then is to give AP Unit a clearly defined role in overall policing operations just as other units have at the moment. Arguments that chiefs & the Public Administration don’t have biting power since AP withdrawal can be answer by considering if there should be separate policing strategy other than that provided by the IG. I believe one coordinated national operational security plan is best. What could be done to address the Public Administration’s still valid concerns? One approach would be to require coordination with NPS & more so to include that ‘coordination with NPS’ in all periodical evaluations of operational success at local police station level. Some joint awareness & team building training for both police and administrative officers will be required to ensure every stakeholder is on the same page, with that we should be good to go. The police on the other hand could be required through directive to provide the public administration a compliment of officers to back them up. As for the AP & other operational police units they should be under a single Deputy IG responsible for National Police Operations, as mentioned elsewhere a suggested functional National Police Service structure could look like this:
A Technical Department under which would be a cutting edge IT systems section responsible for smart technology like the CCTVs or a virtual border management systems, an information analysis systems and communication gadgetry. Other sections under Technical should be responsible for other police equipment including forensic labs, weapons, transport including aircraft etc
CID can remain with its current functions [investigations, criminal intelligence, criminal records, police prosecutions under a Deputy IG;
A Police Operations Department where current police units GD, GSU, AP, Dog Section, Anti Terrorism & Anti Stock Theft Units, air-wing etc can be strategically managed The Coordinator for Auxiliary police services covering, Police Reserve; Community Policing & Nyumba Kumi Operations can also sit under here. All other operational units like my proposed Border Control Unit will also report to a Deputy IG here;
Standards, Oversight and Inspectorate Department that can be entrusted with guiding police reforms & be responsible for all Police Standards and Private Security standards, part of its role will be setting and enforcing procedures as discussed under my article on ‘National Security Standards for All Public Accessible Premises & for Private Security Agents’ and that on ‘Use of Fire Arms by Private Security Companies Law’ they should also ensure standards are maintained in the ‘National Emergency Response Plan’;
Department of Strategy Coordination, Public Communication and Liaison [with rest of government ministries and other states around the globe], envisioning multiple aspects in the national security strategy including use of focused non military and or human security concepts in the functioning of different government ministries and private stakeholders. As for communication & counter propaganda these are critical to win the hearts and minds of already alienated and or negatively perceiving sections of our population as far as police work is concerned.
Finally there should be a Deputy IG heading a Department responsible for General Admin & Personnel where HR – (recruitment, management & Training will sit, financial accounting, career development programs & management of an appropriate officer retirement plan can also be located here.
These six Departments each headed by a Deputy IG together with the IG can form the Police Service Executive Council to act similar to an executive board of a major multinational that has critical operations all over the globe. Through it issues like Terrorism, organized crime or the much needed reforms can be managed in world class style. After all the principles of management remain constant even where businesses may differ from one to another

Addressing Current Public Dissatisfaction in Policing

If we envision a national police agency with a military or ‘Force’ like outlook then have the IG, his deputies & some of his top brass go through senior military officers Defense College in Ngong. If on the other hand we are looking for discipline some remedial measures to curb current in security then restructure the NPS to separate police & admin police possibly do some internal transfers. To really address the concerns with internal security we should begin with crystallizing exactly what it is we want in a national security system & that therefore means determining the main problems we would like addressed first.
For not wanting to write too long I surmise both challenge & proposed solution in the following points; effective anti-corruption, officer buy in for the police reforms, anti extra judicial shooting program, attaining world class customer services level, improved response time to emergencies, effective counter terrorism, counter cattle rustling & ethnic violence programs, upgrade of policing skills & officer educational levels, standardization of operational procedures closely followed by effective performance management systems, increased intelligence led policing, a much needed agency rebranding & image change effort, Improved work & accommodation conditions for police officers increased & upgraded security equipment. Also important is a dependable career development program free of nepotism & other evils that have begat HR management in the service. Finally an improved retirement plan for officers to work & look forward to among those important mile stones I would claim we all aspire to see surpassed.
Simply put, the goals stated here require less technical knowledge in policing or security & more prowess in agency executive management therefore  in order to see the changes we most desire, what is most required is a corporate CEOs mind set from the IG and his leadership team nationally. The Cabinet Secretary at the helm of the ministry can act as the agencies (NPS) chairman.  
What parliament could do is design SMART goals based on the above suggestions for the National Police Service top brass to meet. In addition set up a competent Transitional Reforms Oversight Committee anchored in law possibly comprised at a minimal of; NPSC, IPOA, NPS & a ‘Dream Team’ like component from the corporate world whose responsibility it will be to report to parliament & to deliver the now overdue reforms.

After writing this post I have continued to reflect on it wondering who best to take up this job, especially now the IG has actually resigned. I have settled for Dr. Julius Kipngetich - COO Equity bank if he would be interested check out his profile on the equity bank web page I think he is perfect for the job.

Public Safety and Security

It has been said that armies don’t go to war but it is the country that goes to war. In our current national context it may mean more than economic consideration. As Kenyan civilians we can leave the frontline battles in Somalia to our armed forces and rest in the assurance that they are well trained professionals who also have the support of other regional and international forces in their bid to make intervention for the region.
As has been expressed already the bigger concern should be within our borders. This is an opportune time to critically examine both the public and private measures we have in place to guard against local attacks. A recent basic vulnerability test aired on Citizen TV showed Kenyans in Nairobi going about their daily business almost as if each person is waiting for the first attack before they can react to increase their active participation in securing themselves and in doing so our homeland also. This is not unique to Kenyans. The Americans before the 9/11 attack thought of terrorism as something that only occurs outside their country. They are now much more proactive as we at this time should be, especially since we have already suffered similar attacks at the US embassy in Nairobi city, Westgate and severally in Mombasa among others.
The enemy will certainly want to make it extremely painful for us to continue our intervention in Somalia or elsewhere as conflicts arise around us. Common ways to do this will include attacks at presumed soft targets like those in the tourism industry and other less obvious ones like local supermarkets where it will force the government to over stretch state security and thus increase government spending especially if the military intervention is prolonged. They could also strike at public places like churches or entertainment spots with the aim of impacting social interaction, if only by making previously assumed freedoms more precious to the thought.
As citizens we need to think out of the box and consider how the enemy would plan terrorist attacks. Note the less evident targets, for example, an attack on a busy city road at both ends of a traffic jam. Such an incident would cause tremendous confusion, disruption, panic and terror; the type of reaction the enemy may want leading to public outcry against continued armed intervention into Somalia. In March 2004 an infamous attack of similar kind was undertaken by Al Qaeda sponsored terrorists in Madrid. 199 people died and 1800 others were injured from the coordinated bomb attacks on the Spanish ‘Cercanias’ commuter train. It is said that this event, 3 days before the national election swayed the vote against the then incumbent Jose Maria Aznar of the Partido Popular (PP) party. So when thinking about preservation of our life style or about the sacrifices we need make to sustain security pictures of interfered national mile stones like this should not be lost to the citizen. Let me say here good security is expensive and also inconvenient. Imagine what it would take to properly secure Nairobi city security cameras living no private space, thorough security screening into all buildings and not just the semblance of searches being carried out now at police road blocks it would be random motorists being stopped required to disembark produce valid ID and the cars properly searched, during heightened security alerts we have witnessed something like it at JKIA entrances when the jam spreads out into Mombasa road. Even with modern smart technology security will be obtrusive how else would the police now who or what is being ferried to a scene of crime. Current occurrences at the coast where police upon receiving credible intelligence raided four mosques is a scenario that a short while ago may not have been envisioned as possible in the Kenya yet as it is now majority of the public see it as a necessary intrusion into the sanctity of religious places. It tells me that security must be responsive to prevailing circumstances and not a ridge way of doing things so that it is heightened as threats increase and allayed as situations become safer. This way public do not feel as if they are being unnecessarily burdened with procedures which have little meaning in their lives.
The private sector should consider ways in which we could support the government if not at the battle front then we can contribute to quick effective mitigation at home. It is said fifty percent of dealing with terrorist attacks is responding quickly and effectively every time. To minimize injury/ loss, damage, inconvenience and disruption caused by them. Remember the terrorist must have wide media coverage of their attacks otherwise their purpose to instill fear on its target populace is defeated. Therefore efficient mitigation of the impact of any attack is critical to its deterrence in the first place. Proactive preparation to mitigate just such an attack will inconvenience business in among others taking time to undertake trainings in areas like first aid, evacuation of buildings, surveillance, situational and security awareness all of which are designed to prepare general populations to apply best practices in emergency scenarios to minimize the number of casualties. Smart populations like in Israel are not only ready to minimize casualties but have sensitized and incorporated their people with an aim of preventing and thus reducing the number of victims in the first place.
At the individual level situational awareness is called for; being aware of what is happening around you during the course of your day is a critical skill required of the best security operatives round the world. For the average person on the street it is equally important the advantage being it is a skill that anyone can train themselves to wield expertly. Perhaps the most important factor affecting a person's reaction to a life-threatening incident is their mindset going into that situation. Often when we train air crew on how to deal with an aircraft highjack scenario I tell them to live through the situation in their minds, to feel the emotions and see themselves overcoming any initial fears so as to do the things we recommend that they do in order to survive and help others survive. The way we human beings think makes it very difficult for a person to go from a mental state of utter unawareness if you like perceive ignorance to situations happening around them to a state of heightened alertness. Picture the mind working like a manually operated car if the driver tries to shift from gear one to six straight without going through the other speeds the car will stall. Preparedness therefore calls for mental preconditioning on your part to avoid going into a stall/panic. Most times you see or hear stories of victims going into situational paralysis, which makes you unable to respond to a dangerous situation thus limiting your chances of survival only to the existence of luck, the victim tried to shift gears up, mentally too fast. Other than being aware of your situation you must also learn to trust in your gut feeling when it says something isn't quite right, while in the police we called it ‘akili ya sita’, English translation, ‘the sixth sense’. By overriding this ‘akili’ through rationalizing away your sense of danger is deadly. To master these skills the first step is accepting that our society is living through security dangerous situations then each day every where you are look out for small tell, tell signs of building dangerous situations much as one does when cruising along on the road relaxed but alert for the goat that not knowing any better jumps suddenly jumps onto the road after better grazing on the other side. The driver alert can pick up the signs early and slows to allow him pass. In the same fashion not being paranoid but yet sufficiently aware of your environment you are able to see danger approaching and step on the brakes. The greatest hindrance here is the self, who vows security is the work of police or KDF, who says they have no role in it. They are kind of people who mostly get caught up quickly moving from ignorant or obstinate citizen to victim and probably casualty and finally statistic very quickly.
On the other hand humane treatment of suspected persons in relation to their capture, detention and treatment. Effective counter-terrorist programs around the world are challenged by the perceived side effect of reducing civil freedoms and individual privacy that such measures often entail for suspects and other citizens alike. Executive actions designed to tighten security have often been seen as violations of human right and abuses of power. E.G. the recent operation Usalama Watch conducted in Nairobi’s Eastliegh estate or the curfew slapped on Lamu after terror attacks there. Extradition to other countries and torture during interrogation are also major concerns for persons considering human rights in counter terror work. Human security proponents have argued that when individual rights or group rights are violated with impunity this aggravates the ground more in support of the terrorists and that in contrast respecting human rights helps acquire security. Therefore positive humane treatment policy considerations in law and security operations are important and where/ if departure from them is required a clear legal process with verifiable counter balances and checks must should guide the anomaly. Further policies to focus non-military like security focused operations based on addressing the imbalances in our society and different regions nationally are critically required to combat factors fueling the continued growth of insecurity. As these policies are translated to actual on ground projects the image of non victimization and due care by the government is enhanced. Another critical aspect is that to do with transparency in security agency actions. The public should have the information it needs to engage in informed debate and effectively evaluate its government. Policies and procedures under which our government operates security programs with redactions where necessary to protect properly classified information must be examinable by the Kenyan People so as to continuously ensure our security mechanisms remain within the mandates allowed them on our behalf as those who allow the police at the same time those being policed. This appropriate transparency helps public build confidence in the system. In order to further effectively reduce the disparities between effective security management and the apathy often noticeable in public our national policy must thus guide all security operations to respect always and abide always within the limits allowed them by the law. In this regard also, structures mandated to secure the nation from various criminal activities must consider all plausible options to counter crime and propose appropriate legislation and or regulation to guide such activities in tandem to the constitution this way the public will find security mechanism more dependable and worthy of their corporation as may be required of them.
Going forward this is the time for our highest level of patriotism accommodation of the small demands made for improved security in support of our brave young men and women on the front lines. If you have a position that thinks different from what the country has committed to do, save it for another time after we have returned to peace mode. To us all; know your front line is where you are, the enemy is seeking to interfere with what you are doing here and now.


Tuesday, 29 July 2014


Why the National Police Service Needs This:
It is already apparent that great change is required in the national police service hence the much touted police reforms. To ensure that the desired change process is effective one needs a proper estimate of the work to be done, which areas, what exactly needs changing and when to do it. A good change plan will could generate the will to change and cause essential buy in from those that will be affected by the desired change within the service and from among other critical stakeholders like the host government ministry, the public and financiers etc. As part of the overall strategic planning for the police service a change management plan is an essential tool in attaining the services vision, mission and goals. Therefore I am setting out here to provide my thoughts on some main aspects for consideration in the police’s design of their reforms project.
Most change management plans have 3 levels:
I.            Factoring Change;
Identifying what change in scope, reasons for it, where the organization is, where it desires to be, how ready to change are you? How you will get there, who will be involved, the cost and risks involved.

II.            Implementation Planning;
The information collected in level 1 is then used in deciding activities, responsibilities and time frames in the action plan. Communication through the affected unit involving all stakeholders and required audience must be decided. To be safe a resistance to change plan that identifies possible areas of resistance and ways to deal should also be developed. Once this is done comes the actual performance.

III.            Project Evaluation;
Reviewing project outcomes, making any required corrective actions and celebrating successes with all involved are all important aspects of this level.

So without much ado let’s embark on level:  FACTORING THE CHANGE.
The police service reforms envisions an entire organizational change this was made evident by the peoples aspirations captured in the new constitution which branded the former police force into the now police service. The former was associated with a military like approach to civil policing, it was force abused often by use in enforcing partisan political opinion, a force that led every corruption index announced publically, one that had no or broken equipment whose poorly trained officers were under compensated and lived in over crowed dilapidated staff quarters. Required Reforms must include more than a name change. The scope should cover general themes as follows:
1.       A means to reduce/ eliminate corruption within the service;
2.       A means to identify and recruit the right people into the service;
3.       Improved relevant initial and ongoing training;
4.       Development of appropriate guide & standards of policing including professional ethics;
5.       A means to monitor quality service delivery system wide;
6.       Reduction in crime rates by use of sustainable deliberate strategy and a means to ensure its continued relevance;
7.       Improved management systems;
8.       Employment of additional manpower to attain the UN standard of 1 officer – 400 people;
9.       Police role rationalization to eliminate tasks that can be performed by private bodies;
10.   A means for improved elicitation of public partnership in fighting crime;
11.   Improved equipping in quantity and requirement;
12.   Improved employee compensation and benefits to include, housing, medicare, career progression and retirement benefits;
13.   Relevant research and development in policing and crime control;
14.   A means to attain and maintain international recognition, “World class” status;
15.   Rebranding and better public relations/ communications strategy
16.   Developing a means to influence other sectors for increased security e.g. street lighting, anti violent radicalization development focus;
17.   MOST IMPORTANTLY, OPERATIONAL THINKING: must change to incorporate new strategies that work better in our current times and circumstances.

This list may not be as comprehensive as desired some points may be merged to create one bigger objective. Whatever works will be good.

WHERE IS THE SERVICE NOW? Another aspect to consider is where the organization is currently. I have chosen to say much in this article nonetheless an honest self appraisal will be required if true change is to be attained. In the public domain issues of police officers involved in murder through excessive use of force or otherwise must be addressed. High corruption, reduction of terrorism and related crimes and work related conditions are all issues among other current challenges that depict the police service in a less than desirable way.

WHERE COULD THEY BE? When concerted effort is placed into the police reforms I see the organization eventually attaining a world class status. This means being comparable to the highly esteemed police organizations on the globe like Scotland Yard or NYPD and others.
v  Will have a decent remuneration;
v  The best candidates will be recruited openly an fairly;
v  There will be chances for career progression free of nepotism or corruption;
v  Relevant adequate training will be provided and studies will lead to degrees or professional certification from accredited universities;
v  Compensation for work related injuries, medical cover for families, and great retirement benefits;
v  Staff housing will be provided or alternate self accommodation arrangements made;
v  Will be vied as professionals valued by the public honored in society a job most high potential youth will take as their first choice of career;
v  Work will be more fulfilling.

v  Safer lives, less likelihood to meet violent circumstances thus better quality of life without fear;
v  More time and energy spent in economically gainful activity including a 24hr economy which wasn’t possible before;
v  More economic activity will in turn result in added employment opportunities;
v  Speedy and proper redress from the security and justice system;
v  An assured expectation to receive proper policing service;
v  The police will be a source of public pride and a level of more civilized living.

v  It means less work related stress and failure to achieve;
v  Effective crime reduction making Kenya an attractive destination for business and holiday alike;
v  Professional regard/ respect internationally;
v  Achieving the Vision, Mission and set goals;
v  With time it means easier enforcement as policing systems mature;
v  It means continued justification for its existence.

A full description of this level will include what we expect to see officers doing or saying, what roles will be affected and what it will feel like.

Change management requires a fresh way of thinking that the police command/ management must adopt in the pursuit of achieving adequate police reforms. That includes:
  1.      Accepting, overseeing, operating and carrying with the highest regard/ value the concept of policing by consent. That is the first and most significant concept shift the service must make. It is the reason why the drafters of Kenyan law probably desired a ‘Service’ in contrast to a ‘Force’.  In more highly regarded police departments like in Australia, the UK and Canada, they follow this method of working developed by Sir Robert Peel to define an ethical police service. In that system the police are only allowed to police by fellow citizens, based on their ability to demonstrate integrity and accountability in the exercise of police powers while at the same time affording appropriate openness to enquiry and investigation into issues of public interest. A police historian, Charles Reith writing about the same concept said, it succeeded not from fear but from public co-operation with the police encouraged by officer behavior which results in the approval, respect and affection of the public. In the nine principles handed to new recruits of the Metropolitan Police department in the UK in 1829 the same is well documented. One of the nine principles in particular is worthy of note here; “to recognize always that the power of the police to fulfill their functions and duties is dependent on public approval of their existence, actions and behavior and on their ability to secure and maintain public respect”. If the Kenya National Police Service bases its entire existence and operation on this one concept we will be more than half way towards attaining a world class police service status.
  2.      Moving from reactionary policing where resources are deployed to deal with crimes that have already been committed to proactive working, say through improved community policing where officers, the community, government officials and neighborhood coordinators work to identify and evaluate problems that contribute to the likelihood of crime and solve them. In this model of working the SARA system could be used. SARA is an acronym depicting the four main steps of problem solving and decision making police forces use, they are Scanning, Analysis, Response & Assessment.
  3.     Adapt more predicative policing. By compiling crime data on a daily biases and inputting the same into algorithms patterns of crime can be detected these patterns would help the police at ground level better plan their work almost like beating the criminal to the crime scene. Now there is even crime mapping and analysis technology available that will help the police undertake the exercise easily at station level as is the case in NYPD. A test carried out in Santa Cruz in the US showed accuracy of over 40 percent and could be improved with better data collection and analysis available today. A concept that may be somewhat new is Data fusion which is "the exchange of information from different source including police, private sector and other government organs. In the US the concept has given rise to so called fusion centers formed by 2 or more entities to collate, process, analyze and disseminate actionable intelligence so as to inform strategic and tactical management of policing. This entire concept can still be expanded further to incorporate Intelligence Led Policing where intelligence is used to guide operations more. Already the service there exists a criminal intelligence unit which must be aware of recurrent/ professional criminals operating in different ways and areas. Therefore they could increase resources in surveillance and informants around those known crooks so as to determine their preventative actions. The criminal intelligence section may simply need to expand its operation to support daily deployment of resources at each station or may need to expand its working structure  to include some more of these ideas. This point is in no way a comprehensive discussion on the subject but the concepts mentioned are critical pointers and more effort, thought and alignment ought to be made in this direction.
  4.      Devolving none core duties to the private sector is one way the police service could think for reducing pressure on its manpower while allowing them to concentrate on those functions that are more integral to themselves. Functions like traffic duties, security even armed for airports the railway and sea ports can be given to Parastatals and County authorities like Kenya Airport Authority who already double in this function and have staff who train in government security training centers already. Similarly most counties already have traffic marshals so why not handover this function to them. Laws can be amended and or the approved bodies could be seconded as police reservists with specified functions. All administrative work in the police service should also be given to civilian staff, why train as a police officer and then work as a clerk? The service must automate what can be automated and leave the rest to civilian workers. A comprehensive analysis of all policing functions is called for to determine smarter less occupying fashion of working to allow concentration on important aspects of their service delivery. Forward looking police departments like the West Midlands or the Surrey Police department in the UK are going as far as privatizing actual criminal investigations even setting up a first private police station run by G4S here we are still debating to legalize armed private guards. Management concepts need to be reviewed quickly to meet our prevailing circumstances adequately and stop living in the past paralyzed by the uncertainty of the future.
  5.      Invest in your Human Resource, it has been said treat your employees the same way you want your clients treated. Sir Richard Branson posted an article on Linkedin the other day, empower your staff so that they can leave any time and treat them in such a way they will not want to leave [hope I got it right]. If the police service wants to attract the best people to its employment they will have to review their thinking on how to treat employees. The brightest strongest fastest are like bread crumbs in a fish pond thing is the police is not the only fish in the pond. KDF is there, Safaricom is there, KQ and Virgin are there, the UN is looking also and many more some of you reading this have probably been picked by those other fish. So who remains for the police? I wouldn’t generalize every officer as second grade but I hope you see my argument, failure before the race even starts. Sometimes employees come into an organization as grabs still in their cocoons as may be the case with some police officer. If the police service can rework the HR function to make it more strategic able to enable, develop and motivate their officers as many multinational corporations do the results are bound to be as impressive as those reflected in growth and profit. In a book, ‘Principles of Management’, by Manson C. Talya B. & Berrin E. I found the following necessary questions that as they say an HR department should answer: [a little paraphrased]

v  COMPETENCE: to what extent does our organization have the required knowledge, skills & abilities to implement the strategy?
v  CONSEQUENCE: to what extent does our organization have the right measure, rewards & incentives in place to align officer’s efforts with the Service’s strategy?
v  GOVERNANCE: to what extent does the police service have the right structures, communication systems and policies to create a high-performing entity?
v  LEARNING & LEADERSHIP: to what extent can the police service respond to uncertainty, learn and adapt to change quickly?
The same authors continue to write about human capital [employees, in our case officers] they quote the Society of Human Resource Management’s Research Quarterly, defining an organization’s human capital as follows: “A company’s human capital asset is the collective sum of the attributes, life experience, knowledge, inventiveness, energy and enthusiasm that its people choose to invest in their work.”  The National Police Services HR department/ staffing officers or whatever title they go by must take bolder steps towards this way of thinking and managing the greatest asset the service has.

Finally for today I’d like to point out that the service will require undertaking a comprehensive analysis to determine that all elements of change including any training needs, job roles and other requirements have been covered. This way implementation will touch all required areas. Next time we continue to identify proposed route for reforms, obstacles, risks and stakeholders in the change plan….